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David Fleming

David Fleming is a Principal Consultant and leads Itad’s work on monitoring and evaluation in fragile and conflict-affected environments. He has seven years of experience in designing and conducting evaluations of programmes and strategies focusing on peacebuilding, conflict prevention, humanitarian assistance and the use of evidence to inform policy and decision making. He is also experienced in developing results frameworks and theories of change, value for money framework design and assessment, and leading evaluation field missions.

David is currently Director of the M&E Unit for the Conflict, Stability and Security Fund in East Africa, which is responsible for providing monitoring, evaluation and learning support to CSSF programmes working across the East Africa region. He is also M&E Director for the monitoring and evaluation of DFID’s Global Mine Action Programme, conducting independent monitoring of all GMAP contracts, and formative and summative evaluations of how UK demining, mine risk education and capacity development interventions contribute to development outcomes.

Recently, David evaluated DFID’s Humanitarian Innovation and Evidence Programme, leading on the evaluation of two case studies focusing on Capacity Building and Risk Modelling for Disaster Risk Management in Pakistan. He also evaluated DFID’s Building Capacity for the Use of Research Evidence (BCURE) Programme, leading on the evaluation of a case study that is improving the use of evidence in Cabinet decision-making in Sierra Leone, South Sudan and Liberia.

Other recent assignments include: an evaluation of Denmark’s humanitarian strategy; an evaluation of peace and development in Finland’s development cooperation; independent monitoring of DFID’s programmes in Yemen; an evaluation of DFID’s humanitarian response to Typhoon Haiyan; an evaluation of the Temporary International Presence in Hebron; an evaluation of Norway’s Training for Peace in Africa Programme; and an evaluation of conflict prevention and peace building in Southern Sudan.

David guest lectures annually at the Post-war Reconstruction and Development Unit (PRDU), University of York on the challenges of M&E in conflict and post-conflict settings. He is an experienced workshop facilitator and trained in the use of participative training techniques, working in hostile environments and evaluating humanitarian action. He is fluent in German and has an excellent working knowledge of French.

Find out more about David in his 60 Second Interview.

Nationality: British
Languages: German (fluent), French (very good)
Country Experience:

Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nepal, Pakistan, Rwanda, South Africa, South Sudan


2007 - 2008
MA Transnational Studies (Distinction)
University of Southampton
2002 - 2007
BA German Studies (1st Class)
University of Warwick


2014 - Ongoing
Senior Consultant
Itad Ltd
Responsible for leading Itad's work on monitoring and evaluation in conflict and post-conflict settings, and managing and conducting a range of evaluations and monitoring assignments in the fields of peacebuilding, conflict prevention, disaster response and humanitarian assistance.
2012 - 2014
Business Development Manager and Consultant
Responsible for: Managing the business development team and bid preparation process; Contributing to developing the technical approach, workplan and budget on key proposals; Conducting regular consultancy inputs on monitoring and evaluation assignments, particularly as part of ITAD's fragile and conflict-affected states portfolio; Attending regular Management Team meetings to report on the efficiency of the bidding process and to provide strategic guidance on business development; Building new and existing relationships with clients, associates and partners; - Developing company-wide M&E, knowledge management and communication systems.
2009 - 2012
Business Development Officer and Researcher
Responsible for: Leading the Business Development team; Managing bid writing teams and contributing technical and financial inputs in the preparation of key proposals; Conducting regular desk-based consultancy work for programme and thematic evaluations; Co-managing the Fragile States and Aid Effectiveness Theme Group; Regular attendance at Management Team meetings to contribute to business development strategy.

Project Experience:

2015 - Ongoing
Provision of Monitoring & Evaluation Services for the Conflict, Stability & Security Fund in East Africa
(Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) ) - M&E Director
Itad has been contracted by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) to deliver monitoring and evaluation (M&E) services across UK Conflict, Stability & Security Fund (CSSF) programmes in East Africa. The CSSF is a funding mechanism which supports the UK Government’s work in addressing conflict and fragility globally, under the direction of the National Security Council (NSC).

Activities: Responsible for leading on the M&E Unit’s provision of monitoring, evaluation and learning support to CSSF programmes working in Somalia, Somaliland, Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda and Tanzania. Work to date has focused on supporting programme teams with putting in place agile results frameworks to generate information about the impact of programmes on high-level objectives; and evaluating CSSF programming in particular thematic areas to support the generation and use of evidence and learning to inform programme and strategic decision-making

2016 - 2017
Monitoring and Evaluation of the Global Mine Action Programme
(DFID) - M&E Director
Itad has been contracted by DFID to provide Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) services to the Global Mine Action Programme (GMAP) 2014-17. The purpose of GMAP is to reduce the humanitarian and development impact of landmines and Explosive Remnants of War (ERW). It aims to achieve this through i) clearance and direct release of contaminated or suspected contaminated land (demining); ii) Mine Risk Education (MRE); and iii) building the capacity of partner countries to manage their national Mine Action programmes. Operations in five countries (Mozambique, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos) began in July 2014 as part of Phase 1 of the programme. This included a single contract to conduct capacity building activities with national and regional demining authorities. In addition to this, one single contract will be awarded in 2016 for Phase 2 of the programme which will operate in South Sudan, Somalia, Burma and Zimbabwe.

Activities: Responsible for overseeing the design and delivery of the monitoring and evaluation strategies, including approach to refining and testing the programme theory of change, designing the evaluation framework, methodology and data collection tools, and working with GMAP implementers to strengthen monitoring of and reporting on results.

2013 - 2017
Evaluation of DFID’s Humanitarian Innovation & Evidence Strategy
(DFID) - Core Team Member and Case Study Team Leader
Description: Under the Humanitarian Innovation and Evidence Strategy, DFID is making a major investment in improving the evidence base for humanitarian interventions. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the delivery of the strategy and to find out to what extent DFID has fulfilled the Government's commitment in the Humanitarian Emergency Response Review (HERR) response. It is also aimed at helping DFID to understand the outcome and impact of the strategy on its own practice, as well as policy and practice in the humanitarian sector more broadly.

Activities: Team Leader for the evaluation of two case studies: an IFRC programme focusing on national and local capacity building for disaster risk management; and a GFDRR programme seeking to improve the application of risk modelling for disaster risk management. Responsible for conducting case study research, conducting interviews and writing case study reports, as well as conducting fieldwork in Pakistan later in 2015. Also responsible for: contributing to case studies focusing on delivering aid in insecure environments and DFID's Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF); co-delivering theories of change workshops with DFID during evaluation design phase; designing and conducting impact-oriented case studies to track when and how research findings have influenced policy makers; and using contribution analysis to systematically analyse the extent to which interventions have contributed to observed change, across different cases in different contexts.

2014 - 2016
Evaluation of the Strategy for Danish Humanitarian Action 2010-2015
(Danida) - Deputy Team Leader; Lead Author Afghanistan Study; Co-Author Synthesis Report
Description: Itad is evaluating the Danish Strategy for Humanitarian Action, which was launched in 2009 and focuses on six overall strategic directions, including vulnerability, climate change and natural hazards, and protecting conflict-affected populations. The purpose of the evaluation is to document results achieved during the current strategy period, as well as to learn lessons of what works and why with respect to implementation modalities, programme design and delivery, and linking relief and development in order to inform future strategy development. The evaluation is focusing on a number of overarching questions, including: the relevance of the strategy in light of the changing humanitarian context; the extent to which the strategy provides guidance for engagement in international policy dialogue and making financial decisions; the results and lessons learnt from Denmark's approach of relying on partnerships as the key implementation modality; the lessons learnt from reconciling humanitarian and development objectives in specific contexts; and the extent to which the strategy aligns with the Principles and Practices of Good Humanitarian Donorship.

Activities: Case study lead for Afghanistan Desk Study - led on data collection, interviews and report writing. Co-author of synthesis report and participated in data collection in South Sudan, taking the lead on interviews in Northern Bahr el Ghazal. Co-led theory of change workshop with stakeholders in Copenhagen and contributed to partner assessment, context analysis and portfolio analysis. Also had overall responsibility for project direction, evaluation management and methodology development.

2014 - 2018
Evaluation of Approaches to Build Capacity for Use of Research Evidence (BCURE)
(DFID) - Core Team Member and Case Study Team Leader
Description: DFID launched its Building Capacity to Use Research Evidence Programme (BCURE) with the aim of increasing the capacity of policy makers, practitioners and research intermediaries to use research effectively. This complex multi-country and multi-year evaluation will seek to understand which approaches to building the capacity of decision makers to access, apprise and use evidence work in which types of contexts. The evaluation has four main components: 1) a common theory of change for how capacity development can strengthen research use; 2) case evaluations of six BCURE projects. These are spread over 8 countries and will be followed over three years to understand progress and learning. The common theory of change will be tested through each of the case evaluations using contribution analysis; 3) a review of the wider evidence base on capacity development for research use and other relevant literatures; 4) a synthesis that brings together the findings from the case evaluation and the evidence reviews and seeks to draw out common learning using the principles of realist synthesis.

Activities: Responsible for leading on evaluating the Africa Cabinet Decision-Making Project case study, which seeks to improve the use of research evidence in African Cabinet decision making in Sierra Leone, South Sudan and Liberia; also responsible for contributing to overall evaluation design and case study design and methodology, as well as design of M&E tools for evaluation team.

2013 - 2014
Evaluation of Peace and Development in Finland’s Development Cooperation
(Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland) - Evaluation Director, Team Member, Co-author of synthesis report
Description: Itad is leading this first large, thematic evaluation of Finnish Development Cooperation focusing on the peace, security and development nexus. The evaluation explores how Finnish development cooperation in fragile states combines with policy dialogue and partnerships to support peace and development outcomes at the country level. It consists of two components: firstly, an evaluation of the entirety of Finland's interventions in the Western Balkans 2009-13 as well as the final evaluation of two regional projects; and secondly, case studies of Finnish cooperation in Afghanistan, Ethiopia and Palestinian Territories from 2007-12. Lessons learned and recommendations on Finland's contributions to peace and development in fragile states will be used to support decision-makers at the Ministry in implementing the new fragile states guidance.

Activities: Responsible for project direction and overall evaluation management, and co-author of synthesis report. Also responsible for contributing to evaluation design, development of methodology and evaluation tools, and quality assurance of all reports. Team member for the Ethiopia country visit, with particular responsibility for evaluating Finland's cooperation at the strategic level as well as support to land administration in SNNPR and Oromia. Presented final synthesis report and Palestine Case Study Report in Helsinki at public presentation.

2014 - 2015
Evaluation of DFID’s humanitarian response to Typhoon Haiyan
(DFID) - Evaluation Director
Description: Typhoon Haiyan was one of the strongest typhoons on record, resulting in loss of life, destruction to physical infrastructure and housing, and disruption of communications, electricity, water systems and transportation. The purpose of this evaluation is to assist DFID CHASE (both the response and policy teams) learn lessons of DFID's response to the typhoon with a view to improving performance in future responses. Key to the evaluation is to learn how well DFID's partners (and through them DFID) performed, what can be done better next time, and what comparative value for money and added value DFID's partners provide. The secondary aim is to assist accountability issues, both to the taxpayer but equally importantly to end users.

Activities: Responsible for overall evaluation direction and management, development and refinement of evaluation methodology, contributing to report writing and presenting reports to DFID and other stakeholders.

2014 - 2015
Evaluation of the Temporary International Presence in Hebron
(Norad) - Evaluation Director
Description: In March 1994, the Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO) and Israel signed an agreement on establishing the Temporary International Presence in Hebron (TIPH). According to the agreement the TIPH will assist in monitoring and reporting the efforts to maintain normal life in the City of Hebron, thus creating a feeling of security among Palestinians in the City of Hebron. This is the first ever evaluation of the TIPH and the purpose is to assess the performance of the TIPH against the objectives in the mandate, addressing outcomes and possible impact, and to put forward recommendations on how to improve the performance of the TIPH within the scope of the mandate.

Activities: Responsible for overall evaluation direction and management, as well as development and refinement of a theory-based and process-oriented methodology, and quality assurance of final reports.

2014 - 2016
DFID Yemen Independent Monitoring Programme
(DFID) - M&E Consultant and Humanitarian Sector Lead
Description: We are working with British Council and Interaction to undertake independent monitoring and verification of DFID's programmes in Yemen. The purpose of our work is to independently verify the implementation and outputs of DFID funded projects across the four pillars of humanitarian assistance, governance, wealth creation and PHV (poverty, hunger and vulnerability). We are doing this through observation, interviews with programme staff and focus group discussions with beneficiary communities. We are also undertaking a number of in-depth research studies on areas where there are major gaps in evidence, including a comparative study of approaches to cash transfers, and a comparative assessment of Government and NGO service delivery mechanisms.

Activities: Responsible for Itad project management, design of M&E templates and tools, including partner capability assessment tools and QA and verification templates. Also responsible for leading the monitoring of DFID's humanitarian sector projects and programmes.

2013 - 2014
Evaluation of the Training for Peace in Africa Programme
(Norad) - Evaluation Consultant
Description: The Training for Peace (TfP) programme was initiated in 1995 by the Norwegian government, with the overall goal of supporting sustainable African capacity for peace operations. With its focus on training, rosters, policy development and applied research, the TfP programme has aimed to place the civilian and multi-dimensional aspects of peacekeeping on the agenda, including issues related to the protection of civilians and women, peace and security. The purpose of this evaluation is to provide information about the relevance and effects of the TfP programme, with a view to inform decisions about the future of the programme as well as the wider international community involved in peace operations.

Activities: Contributed to the design of an impact assessment of the programme's training component, with a focus on the training of police; conducted interviews and fieldwork with the Rwanda National Police in Kigali; contributed to an assessment of the cost effectiveness of the programme's training component, as well as a mapping of the programme logic and its underlying assumptions; conducted interviews in Norway with Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Police Directorate and NUPI, as well as in Nairobi with training institutions.

2013 - 2014
Yemen Country Strategy Evaluation
(European Commission) - Evaluation Consultant
Description: The EU Delegation in Yemen will be developing its next long term programming strategy in 2015 and has commissioned a country programme evaluation to contribute to that process. This evaluation has two objectives: 1) to provide the relevant external co-operation services of the EU and the wider public with an overall independent assessment of the EU's past and current co-operation and partnership relations with Yemen; 2) to identify key lessons and to provide recommendations in order to improve the current and future strategies, programmes and actions of the European Union.

Activities: Evaluation team member leading on contextual analysis, strategy review, and evaluation of efficiency of EU development cooperation funding instruments and aid modalities; contributing to the inception, desk and final evaluation reports. .

2012 - 2014
M&E Support to TradeMark East Africa Rwanda
(TradeMark East Africa) - M&E Consultant
Description: TradeMark East Africa (TMEA) is a not-for-profit organisation that gives technical and monetary support to the EAC Secretariat, national governments, private sector and civil society so they can enhance trade and markets in the region for the benefit of all East Africans. Through TMEA, a cost-effective regional aid delivery mechanism has been established that can focus on building long-term East African capacity. TMEA provides a durable platform for scaling-up Aid For Trade to East Africa in areas such as: Trade policy reform; Trade-related infrastructure; Regional investment climate harmonization; Export development; Trade facilitation; Coping with the social and environmental adjustment costs of deeper integration and rapid export-led growth. ITAD is providing in-depth and ongoing M&E support to TMEA Rwanda and its partners, including 18 government, quasi-government, private sector and civil society organisations. This support aims to enhance the overall quality and coherence of TMEA Rwanda's programme goals and performance metrics and to provide ongoing mentoring and technical assistance to its partners to enhance the evidence-base for project design, the quality of their key performance indicators, their capacity to report on project outputs and outcomes, and their capacity to use monitoring information in project management decisions.

Activities: Providing continuous M&E support to TMEA. Work to date has included agreeing a theory of change and developing a results chain, M&E framework and performance indicators for the Ministry for East African Community (MINEAC) and Private Sector Federation (PSF); designing and commissioning a baseline study for PSF; designing tools and approaches for monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of advocacy and communication activities; and designing training modules on a range of M&E topics such as indicator development, results-based monitoring and project cycle management.

2011 - 2012
Evaluation of DFID's International Citizen Service (ICS) Pilot Stage
(DFID) - Evaluation Consultant: Leader of Nepal Country Study; Leader of VFM Assessment
Description: The Department for International Development's (DFID) International Citizen Service (ICS) is a global volunteering experience which supports young people to make a real difference to some of the world's poorest people. The purpose of the 18 month Pilot phase is to facilitate 1, 250 British citizens to contribute to development through international volunteering and generate knowledge to inform future youth volunteering programmes. A core aim of the pilot is that the cohort of volunteers represents the true diversity of UK society, providing volunteering opportunities to people from a range of economic backgrounds and from all four countries of the UK. ITAD was commissioned by DFID to conduct a Mid-term Review (MTR) and Project Completion Review (PCR) of the ICS Pilot. The objectives of the evaluation are to assess the extent to which the outputs and purpose of the pilot have been achieved, to generate knowledge to inform the scale up of ICS and to analyse the value for money (VFM) of each stage of the ICS volunteer journey.

Activities: Led the Field Visit in Nepal: conducted interviews and focus group discussions at project sites of key stakeholders to assess emerging impacts; lead author of Nepal Field Visit report. Conducted interviews of ICS staff as well as focus group discussions with volunteers to obtain evidence on efficiency and effectiveness of approaches used; led the value for money (VFM) assessment to assess whether ICS is operating in an efficient, effective and cost-effective manner; conducted a review of existing literature on youth participation in development, the impact of volunteering on personal development, and development impact and prepared a team briefing note; contributed to the writing of the MTR and Final report.

2009 - 2011
Evaluation of Conflict and Peacebuilding Activities in Southern Sudan
(Multi-donor; Led by Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs) - Evaluation Consultant
Description: This high-profile evaluation, led by the Netherlands MFA, was conducted in the lead up to the referendum and provided a reflection on the performance of donor-supported conflict prevention and peacebuilding efforts since the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement.

Activities: Provided desk-based research on drivers of conflict and donor policy in South Sudan; conducted policy and portfolio analysis; 2-week field visit to Juba to set up and manage the evaluation team office, provide technical and research support to the field teams, conduct interviews, and manage logistics and security arrangements. Also provided project management, team coordination and financial management throughout the evaluation.

2013 - Ongoing
Post-War Recovery Studies MSc Teaching at York - M&E in Fragile States: The Challenges of Measurement
(PRDU, University of York) - Lecturer
Description: Each year I teach an annual seminar on the challenges of M&E in conflict and post-conflict settings.

Activities: The seminar introduces key concepts such as the OECD-DAC Evaluation Criteria and Evaluation Matrix through group exercises. These are combined with case study examples to illustrate how tools and methods such as Contribution Analysis and Outcome Mapping have been used in the field to overcome issues such as data reliability, evidence and attribution gaps, and inadequate theories of change.

2010 - 2011
Evaluation of Danish Engagement in Somalia 2006-2010
(Danida) - Evaluation Consultant
Description: Danish engagement in Somalia focuses on three key areas: support to refugees and IDPs through the Regions of Origin Programme, bilateral assistance centred on capacity building and democratisation, and humanitarian assistance.

Activities: Led the proposal writing process and contributed to the design of the evaluation framework; supported the core evaluation team with document collection and review, producing literature summaries and contributing to the development of analytical tools for evaluation, including theory of change and contribution analysis.

2011 - 2011
Evaluation of Support to Civil Society Engagement in Policy Dialogue
(Danida, Sida, ADA) - Evaluation Consultant
Description: This complex, multi-donor and multi-country evaluation seeks to redress the lack of meta-analysis that has been conducted on the effectiveness of CSOs as agents of change and thus address the greater need for more knowledge on the results of CSO work at output, outcome and impact level, as well as the collective contribution of CSO to development.

Activities: Supporting the evaluation team with document review and contextualisation of the CSO landscape in the three case study countries; portfolio analysis; designing a sampling process to identify key policy processes and CSOs to be evaluated in the second data collection phase; and web survey design and implementation.

2010 - 2010
Evaluation of the Results-based Approach and M&E of the Finnish Development Cooperation Interventions
(Finland MFA) - M&E Consultant
Description: The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the planning and design of current projects and programmes from the point of view of a results-based approach.

Activities: Conducted desk review of project and programme documentation, contributing to the design of a robust checklist drawing on established RBM practices to provide evidence-based analysis of the status of RBM within the organisation and recommendations on how to strengthen a results-based system. Evaluated project and programme design frameworks, including Theories of Change, the design process, and monitoring and reporting mechanisms.

2010 - 2010
Evaluation of Programmatic Approaches to Support for the Environment in Africa, 1996-2009
(Danida) - Survey Expert
Description: The evaluation assessed the results, impact and challenges linked to the implementation of programmatic approaches in the field of the environment in Danish partner countries in Africa, during the period 1996-2009.

Activities: Designed web-based survey for key stakeholders in partner countries to comment on the relevance, efficiency and effectiveness of development interventions and environmental support, and summarised findings for the final evaluation report.

2009 - 2009
DFID Country Programme Evaluation - South Africa
(DFID) - Research Assistant
Description: DFID's performance management system was previously supported by an annual round of 5 Country Programme Evaluations (CPEs) or Regional Programme Evaluations (RPEs) designed to provide important accountability and lesson learning functions for DFID. The Regional Programme Evaluation in Southern Africa focused specifically on regional economic integration (REI) and growth, cross-border aspects of vulnerability and insecurity, and livelihoods.

Activities: Conducted desk-based research and document review, wrote approach papers on South Africa's role as a global power and regional economic integration, and analysed DFID expenditure and summarised findings for the final report.

2009 - 2009
DFID Country Programme Evaluation - Yemen
(DFID) - Research Assistant
Description: This DFID CPE focused on the effectiveness of DFID's strategy implementation in Yemen and formed the basis of a synthesis of CPEs in Fragile States.

Activities: Conducted an analysis of ODA disbursements to Yemen, and DFID expenditure and performance.

Membership of professional associations:

  • European Evaluation Society