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Tim Ruffer

Tim Ruffer is Managing Partner at Itad and oversees our work in private sector development and impact investing.

He has over 20 years’ experience in international development with a particular focus on supporting projects and initiatives to improve economic wellbeing through market development, financial inclusion, investment and trade. Recent work has focused on helping businesses and international development agencies to improve the way that markets function, to measure the development impact of their work, and to learn from this.


2018 - ongoing
Managing Partner
Itad Ltd.

2014 - ongoing
Itad Ltd.

2011 - 2014
Associate Director
Itad Ltd.

2008 - 2011
Head of Economic Growth
Coffey International Development
Senior Manager and Head of Coffey International Development's Economic Growth Unit, responsible for managing the company's portfolio of consultancy work in financial sector development, economics, growth and private sector development.
2006 - 2008
Leader of Growth, Resources and Trade Portfolio and Senior Consultant
Oxford Policy Management Ltd
Responsible for managing OPM's consultancy work on economic growth, private sector development, natural resources policy, infrastructure policy, and international trade.
2005 - 2006
Senior Consultant
Oxford Policy Management Ltd
Head of International Trade Policy Practice, delivering and managing numerous trade policy consulting assignments, mainly for DFID.
2001 - 2005
Oxford Policy Management Ltd
Undertook consulting assignments relating to economic growth, international trade, aid policy and public finance.
2000 - 2001
Economist, International Trade Department
Department for International Development
Economist responsible for managing DFID's policy and research work on international trade in agriculture, textiles and clothing. Involved in WTO negotiations on agriculture, and regular UK trade policy discussions across Whitehall.
1999 - 2000
Deputy Editor/Economist - Africa Division
Economist Intelligence Unit
Responsible for economic and policy analysis of seven African countries. Economic modelling and political and economic forecasting. Writing and editing of all reports for these countries, including country profiles, country reports and risk rating reviews.
1997 - 1999
Senior Treasury Economist, Ministry of Finance
Overseas Development Institute Fellowship Scheme
Responsible for macroeconomic analysis and projections, including economic growth, investment, savings, inflation, balance of payments, tax and revenues. Supported the preparation of the national budget and the monitoring of its implementation, including through regular negotiations with the IMF and World Bank.
1997 - 1999
Country Reporter for the Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
Prepared quarterly reports for the EIU on Malawi's economic and political situation, analysis of economic trends and forecasting of future prospects.

Project Experience:

2018 - ongoing
Monitoring and evaluation support to Gatsby Africa
(Gatsby Africa) - Senior Technical Adviser
Description: Support to strengthen the Gatsby approach to monitoring and evaluation, particularly in relation to its objectives of achieving sector transformation.

Activities: Clarification of Gatsby’s vision and definitions of sector transformation (including its theory of change), definition of performance indicators and preparation of measurement plans, and support to Gatsby in applying this measurement approach to its sector programmes.

Evaluation of The Market Systems Development Approach: Lessons for Expanded Use and Adaptive Management at Sida
(Sida) - Team leader
Description: Sida commissioned an evaluation of its management of a growing portfolio of market systems development (MSD) projects. The evaluation sought to provide insights on how Sida can improve its management practices – both for MSD and for other complex and adaptive programs that it funds.

Activities: The evaluation considered a sample of eleven of Sida’s MSD projects. In considering Sida’s management approach, it applied a conceptual framework for understanding organisational capacity relating to (i) policies, guidelines and systems; (ii) staff capacities; and (iii) organisational culture. It was utilisation focused, with a strong emphasis on learning from the evaluation process. It applied a process evaluation approach to identify critical processes in the MSD project cycle and to assess whether these processes were implemented as planned, and to consider how this influenced the effectiveness of MSD programming at Sida.

2015 - 2017
Retrospective Impact Assessment of the Financial Sector Deepening Trust of Tanzania
(Financial Services Deepening Trust) - Project Director
Description: The Financial Services Deepening Trust (FSDT) has been working since 2005 to stimulate the development of Tanzania’s financial services sector so that it better meets the needs of poor Tanzanians and of micro, small and medium-size enterprises (MSMEs, contributes to economic growth, and helps to reduce poverty). The main objective of the evaluation was to assess the impact that FSDT as a programme had on financial access in Tanzania over the period 2005 to 2015.

Activities: Theory-based evaluation approach using mixed methods to analyse and understand the context in which the programme was delivered, undertake a rigorous analysis of the evidence, and comparison of observable impacts to the counterfactual.

2015 - 2016
Digital Jobs Africa Monitoring and Learning 2015 Grant
(Rockefeller Foundation) - Inception Phase Team Leader
Description: The Rockefeller Foundation’s Digital Jobs Africa (DJA) Initiative is working across six countries to catalyse sustainable ICT jobs for African youth within the newly developing Impact Sourcing global market ecosystem. The Initiative aims to have an impact both on improving wellbeing of those employed, their families and communities, and also to promote inclusive business hiring practices that will lead to job creation for youth in ICT-enabled sectors.

Activities: Lead the development of the Monitoring and Learning (M&L) system for DJA to support internal learning and thereby inform and improve strategic management and knowledge sharing, and ensure that the Initiative is fully accountable to the Rockefeller Foundation’s Executive Team and Board of Trustees.

2014 - 2017
BEAM Exchange
(DFID, SDC) - M&E Consultant
Description: Itad is leading the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) spoke for BEAM, which aims to build the credibility of the market systems approach by strengthening the evidence base of its impact, and to support practitioners to improve implementation by generating and responding better to information on the effects of their interventions.

Activities: Quality assurance and support to the design of Monitoring and Results Measurement framework and tools.

2013 - 2020
Private Enterprise Programme Ethiopia (PEPE)
(DFID, Ethiopia) - M&E Adviser
Description: PEPE is working to support private sector development, through (1) improving firms' access to finance (the 'access to finance' pillar) and (2) addressing market and government failures in identified priority sectors (the 'priority sectors' pillar). The programme is applying the M4P approach. It aims to increase investment and create new jobs and income opportunities, particularly for women.

Activities: Development of the M&E framework for the programme and associated handbook. Training and mentoring of staff on the application of the M&E framework. Development of results chains, measurement plans, VFM metrics and indicators for interventions. Support to PEPE in review of programme strategy based on emerging results.

2013 - 2018
Support to DFID’s Market Development Programme, Northern Ghana
(DFID) - Monitoring Design and Survey Advisor
Description: MADE is a 5 year programme to improve the incomes and resilience of poor farmers and small-scale, rural entrepreneurs in the North of Ghana by improving the way in which markets work, with a particular focus on agricultural value chains. The programme is being implemented using the Making Markets Work for the Poor (M4P) approach with the aim to make markets more effective, sustainable and beneficial for poor people.

Activities: Oversight of the development and roll-out of a comprehensive M&E system designed to track programme results and value for money, and to inform internal learning and adaptation.

2013 - 2018
Evaluation of FoodTrade East & Southern Africa
(DFID, Eastern & Southern Africa) - Evaluation Director
Description: FoodTrade ESA Programme aims to improved the functioning of staple food markets in East and Southern Africa and thereby increase income levels and security for food producers and consumers. It will do this by identifying opportunities to invest in private sector-led market development initiatives across the region, provide support to facilitate the success of these initiatives and leverage successful innovations to reform policy and encourage further development though replication.

Activities: Longitudinal evaluation of FoodTrade ESA to assess its efficiency, effectiveness and impact. Methods include market analysis and impact evaluation, process evaluation, VFM assessment, and sustainability analysis.

2013 - 2019
Monitoring & Evaluation of the Nepal Rural Access Programme
(DFID, Nepal) - Programme Director
Description: DFID's Rural Access Programme (RAP) aims to address the lack of physical access and social exclusion that many poor people face through the development of an approach to rural road construction and maintenance that targets the poorest and most disadvantaged groups. Itad is managing the independent Monitoring, Evaluation & Learning Unit (MEL Unit) of the third phase of RAP.

Activities: The MEL Unit is supporting the RAP team by measuring progress against set benchmarks and milestones, and undertaking thematic studies to review the programme's Theory of Change (TOC). A detailed impact assessment of RAP will be undertaken, using a combination of methods, including a large-scale household survey, quasi-experimental impact evaluation, and a range of qualitative tools, including Reality Check Assessments. The MEL Unit is also working to build M&E capacity at the District level.

2013 - 2017
Commercial Law and Justice Programme
(DFID, Global) - Impact assessment advisor
Description: Itad is undertaking a series of impact assessments of DFID's Commercial Law and Justice Programme (CLJP). CLJP aims to strengthen investment climates in developing countries, and thereby contribute to higher economic growth, job creation and poverty reduction. It will do this by improving the identification of problems in commercial legal environments, and the way that they are addressed. Whilst there are many different initiatives to reform the business enabling environment in developing countries, remarkably little is known about which reforms achieve impact and why. The impact assessments offer an exciting opportunity to address this information deficit.

Activities: Leading the design and management of rigorous impact assessments of specific commercial law and justice reforms, to test impact on growth, jobs and livelihoods.

2013 - 2017
Business Innovation Facility
(DFID, Global) - Lead M&E Advisor
Description: BIF is providing technical assistance (TA) to companies in developing countries to support them to adjust the way they do business in ways that create more jobs, opportunities, products and services for poor people. BIF has been in operation in Nigeria, Zambia, Malawi, India and Bangladesh since 2010. Companies supported by BIF already reach around 2 million poor people and have ambitions to multiply their reach by 2015.

Activities: Lead Itad's Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) support to the second phase of DFID's Business Innovation Facility (BIF). Itad is developing and rolling out the M&E framework, training local teams on the application of the framework, and is providing ongoing strategic direction and support.

2013 - 2014
Multi-donor evaluation of budget support in Mozambique
(European Commission, Mozambique) - Project Manager
Description: The main objective of the evaluation is to assess to what extent the General Budget Support (GBS) and Sector Budget Support (SBS) in Mozambique contributed to achieve sustainable results on growth and poverty reduction by successfully giving means to the partner government to implement its national / sector strategies and to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of its policies, strategies, and spending actions.

Activities: Project management of the evaluation. This involves an analysis of the key factors that have driven growth and poverty reduction and the extent to which budget support has influenced these factors.

2012 - 2015
Food Retail Industry Challenge Fund
(Nathan / DFID) - M&E Specialist
Description: The Food Retail Industry Challenge Fund (FRICH) aims to improve the lives of smallholder farmers and agricultural workers in African countries, by increasing European imports of food from countries north of South Africa and south of the Sahara.

FRICH provides grants to supports new ideas that connect African farmers with global retailers in innovative business partnerships. FRICH achieves results by removing blockages to market access and making sure that European shoppers know what differences their purchases make to poor farmers.

Activities: Support the FRICH fund management team in the delivery of successful outcomes for the Fund by ensuring effective monitoring and evaluation systems are in place and in use, both for the Fund as a whole, and the individual projects supported by the Fund.

2012 - 2015
TradeMark East Africa (TMEA) Results Measurement and Capacity Development
(TMEA, Rwanda) - Project director and M&E Adviser
Description: Support to TMEA Rwanda and the key implementing partners with putting into place a results chain monitoring framework for each of the priority projects funded by TMEA which ultimately become fully integrated into the management systems of the partners. Partners include a range of government, civil society and private sector organisations engaged in strengthening Rwanda's regional trade performance.

Activities: Oversight and quality control of project implementation. Support to development and implementation of a results chain monitoring framework (following the DCED Standard). M&E capacity development of partners and beneficiaries.

2012 - 2014
Evaluating and Enhancing the Impact of Mobile Money for the Unbanked (MMU) Phase 2
(Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Global) - Project Director
Description: The objective of the Mobile Money for the Unbanked (MMU) initiative is to leverage the GSMA platform (a worldwide body to represent the interests of mobile operators) to help mobile network operators (MNOs) deploy and scale mobile money services for the unbanked across Africa, Asia and Latin America.

Activities: Project director of a project of monitoring and evaluation for MMU, including: 1) an annual survey of mobile money deployments to test MMU's impact; and 2) a separate evaluation of each MMU engagement to determine MMU's ability to serve unbanked customers. The core aim of these evaluations is to continuously refine and improve MMU's engagement model over time.

2012 - 2013
Synthesis of M4P evaluation methods and approaches
(DFID, Global) - Team Leader
Description: Critical review of the methods used to evaluate market development (M4P) programmes to help inform the development of DFID's approach to evaluation in this area.

Activities: The review compiled information about the scope and purpose of evaluations of M4P programmes and analysed their strengths and weaknesses. 32 M4P programme reviews, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) frameworks and programme reports were analysed in addition to widespread consultations.

2011 - 2013
Evaluation of Budget Support in Tanzania
(European Commission, Tanzania) - Project Manager and Growth Sectors Lead
Description: The main objective of the evaluation is to assess to what extent the General Budget Support (GBS) and Sector Budget Support (SBS) in Tanzania contributed to achieve sustainable results on growth and poverty reduction by successfully giving means to the partner government to implement its national / sector strategies and to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of its policies, strategies, and
spending actions.

Activities: Project management and lead of the Growth Sectors component of the evaluation. This involves an analysis of the key factors that have driven growth and poverty reduction in Tanzania and the extent to which budget support has influenced these factors.

2012 - 2013
Mid-Term Review of the Malonda Program 2010-2013
(SIDA, Mozambique) - Project Director
Description: The Malonda Foundation (MF) works in the Niassa provinceto facilitate business development and support improvements to the private sector environment in Niassa. ITAD is undertaking a mid-term review of the Malonda Foundation's activities. The specific objectives of the MTR are to establish if results have been achieved according to the agreed objectives of the program (based on the agreed RAF Results Assessment Framework) and assess the effectiveness and efficiency of MF's organisational set up in order to reach the objectives in the strategic plan.

Activities: The consultants are undertaking the following activities: measuring results under each pillar against the agreed Results Assessment Framework; exploring the reasons why results have / have not been achieved, and drawing lessons for future programming; assessing the effectiveness and efficiency of the Malonda Foundation's organisational set-up to achieve the objectives in its strategic plan; helping SIDA to determine whether and how to extend the programme from its current scheduled end in June 2013 to June 2015, based on sound technical analysis.

2012 - 2013
GEMS Nigeria: Results Measurement Handbook
(DFID / World Bank, Nigeria) - Team Leader and lead handbook author
Description: GEMS is a $250 million partnership between the federal government of Nigeria, the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and the World Bank which applies an M4P approach to creating income opportunities and jobs for poor Nigerians. GEMS is engaging in several sectors and has an additional cross-cutting component which targets wider policy reform and strengthening of the business enabling environment.

Activities: Development of an innovative results measurement handbook for programme staff and provision of associated training. The purpose of the handbook is to provide GEMS project managers with a consistent framework for capturing and reporting results and to ensure a coherent approach to results measurement across the programme. The handbook provides indicator definitions and measurement methodologies, taking into account of the wide spectrum of interventions included under the GEMS.

2012 - Ongoing
Impact Evaluation Scheme (IES) for the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)
(GIZ, Liberia, Cameroon and Peru) - Team Leader
Description: The overall aim of the assignment is to elaborate and pilot a flexible scheme on how to measure attributable change as a result of national EITI processes. The objective of the Impact Evaluation Scheme (IES) is to provide a tool measuring EITI impact at the country level. It is a response to recent evaluations of EITI that have recommended that EITI should develop a more rigorous and realistic results framework. This work ties in closely with the ongoing Strategy Review of EITI.

Activities: Development of an impact evaluation scheme for EITI, including the development of a theory of change, results framework and evaluation framework. Piloting of the scheme with national stakeholders in Liberia, Cameroon and Peru. Refinement based on lessons from pilots.

Making Markets Work for the Poor (M4P) Impact Evaluation Workshop
(DFID, Global) - Workshop preparation and facilitation
Description: The purpose of the workshop was to explore guiding principles and provide broad recommendations on how the impact of Making Markets Work for the Poor development (M4P) projects and programmes can be more effectively and credibly evaluated.

Activities: Technical support to the workshop preparations. Assistance with facilitation and presentation on the technical requirements for rigorous impact evaluation.

Review of DFID's support to the EITI
(DFID, Global) - Team Leader
Description: DFID has provided support to the EITI since 2005, which has been instrumental to the global development of the initiative. This has included financial support to the World Bank's EITI Multi Donor Trust Fund and to the operations of the EITI Secretariat. The purpose of the annual review was to assess progress over the past 12 months and to identify future priorities for DFID support to EITI within the context of an ongoing Strategy Review of EITI.

Activities: Document review, interviews with key stakeholders, completion of the DFID Annual Review template, and preparation of a short summary narrative of the key findings and recommendations .

Musika Zambia: Support to Results Measurement
(Musika) - Project Director
Description: Musika is an independent Zambian non-profit company owned by key Zambian agricultural institutions that applies an M4P approach to the development of agricultural markets. The objective of the assignment was to help Musika refine its existing systems, tools and processes in order to meet the goals of reporting against the logframe, manage an internal information system and tell the story of how Musika has impacted various levels of clients and beneficiaries.

Activities: Provision of recommendations for refinement to the monitoring and reporting systems; a revised M&E guide, prepared collaboratively with the Musika knowledge management team; development of refined tools for information collection, monitoring and reporting.

Mid-term Review of the Enhanced Integrated Framework
(World Trade Organisation, Global) - Quality assurer
Description: The EIF is a multi-donor programme which supports Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to be more active players in the global trading system by helping them tackle supply-side constraints to trade. In this way, the programme works towards a wider goal of promoting economic growth and sustainable development and helping to lift more people out of poverty. The programme is helping 46 LDCs worldwide. The purpose of the MTR is to undertake an independent evaluation of the performance of the programme and recommend programme adjustment as necessary. The review also aims to identify challenges and opportunities and capture success stories and lessons learned from implementing the EIF for future strategic programming.

Activities: The evaluation includes a combination of desk-based review, interviews and fieldwork, following a participatory approach involving EIF stakeholders at the country and programme levels. It is applying the OECD-DAC criteria for development effectiveness (relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability).

Market Development in Agriculture
(Sida, Liberia) - Consultant
Description: Sida is planning to set up a programme for Support to the Development of Markets and Value Chains in Agriculture in Liberia in accordance with the Making Markets Work for the Poor (M4P) approach.

Activities: Support to the design of Sida's Market Development Programme. Quality assurance of the procurement process from an M4P perspective, to enable Sida to procure a high quality facilitator for design and implementation of the programme.

Market Development Project
(DFID, Palestine) - Consultant
Description: Support to DFID, World Bank and EU in the design and development of a concept note for a US$24 million market development project for Palestine
2010 - 2011
Construction and Real Estate
(DFID, Nigeria) - Project Manager
Description: Project Manager for a major DFID M4P programme that seeks to create 20,000 jobs and income opportunities by strengthening the competitiveness of the Nigerian construction and real estate sector, to improve training and innovation and industry coordination and representation. This forms part of the joint DFID / World Bank 'Growth, Employment and Markets in States' (GEMS) programme.
2009 - 2010
Regional Governance Review
(Ford Foundation, Africa) - Team Leader
Description: Team leader of a study of economic and political governance initiatives in Africa to assist in the identification of needs and potential partners for support from the Ford Foundation
2009 - 2010
EITI Validations
(EITI Secretariat, Azerbaijan, Mongolia, Kyrgyzstan, Yemen and Timor Leste) - Project Director/Team Member
Project description: The objective of the validations is to provide an independent assessment of the progress achieved by the EITI and what measures are required to make better and faster progress.

Activities: Oversight, direction and team leadership.

Review of DFID's Support to Private Sector Development
(DFID, Sierra Leone) - Consultant
Project description: Review of DFID's support to private sector development in Sierra Leone, including a programme with FIAS to reduce administrative barriers to investment and a programme to prepare and implement a private sector development strategy.

Activities: Support to DFID in preparing its exit strategy from support to private sector development and to other donors in planning their future support in this area.

Technical Services for Iraq
(DFID, Iraq) - Coordinator
Description: Coordinator of a series of high level working groups established to support the Basra Development Commission (BDC), a high-level advisory body championing inward investment and local business development. The working groups are responsible for identifying, analysing, and making recommendations on cross-cutting and sector specific issues related to Basra's economic development.

Activities: Coordinator of the BDC working groups and coordination of the preparation of the Basra Economic Development Strategy

2007 - 2008
Aid effectiveness, gender equality, human rights and social exclusion
(DFID and Irish Aid, International) - Team Member
Description: Member of a team gathering evidence on the links between the aid effectiveness agenda and three cross cutting social issues: gender equality, human rights and social exclusion. The purpose of this study was to build support among Paris Declaration stakeholders and provide practical recommendations for strengthening the focus on the cross-cutting social issues for the Third High Level Forum on the Paris Declaration in Ghana (2008)
2007 - 2008
Resource Endowment Initiative
(ICMM, Tanzania, Peru and Ghana) - Project Manager
Description: Management of Phase 3 of a high profile international initiative which sought to better understand how large scale mining activity in low and middle income countries can enhance the socio-economic development of host countries. The work involved piloting innovative approaches to catalysing collaborative partnerships between mining companies, governments, donors and civil society
2007 - 2008
Informal Labour Markets in Developing Countries
(DFID, International) - Consultant
Description: Preparation of a report on the latest research and thinking about informal labour markets in developing countries. The report considers the nature, definition and measurement of these markets; some evidence of how they are evolving; the policy implications; and diagnostic criteria for assessing them in any particular country.
Private Sector Development Strategy
(DFID, Kenya) - Consultant
Description: Support to the Kenyan Ministry of Trade and Industry in the preparation of an implementation plan for the Private Sector Development Strategy. Support centred around Pillar 3 to the PSDS: Economic Growth Through Trade Expansion.
Support to DFID's International Trade Department
(DFID, International) - Consultant
Description: Call-down contract with DFID to provide advice on a variety of trade policy issues.
Activities: Technical support related to CAP reform, trade policy modelling, and import surges.

Constraints and Challenges of the Cotton and Textiles Sector
(Constraints and Challenges of the Cotton and Textiles Sector) - Economist
Description: Economist and main report writer on a team assessing the constraints and challenges of the cotton and textiles sector in Tanzania and formulating an action plan for the sector. The study examined the current situation in the cotton and textiles sector in Tanzania with a view to identifying where the comparative advantage of the sector lies, the policies which would contribute to realising this advantage and the steps which might be taken to achieve it.

Activities: The work included the preparation of a detailed government strategy for the development of the sector which was presented and agreed on at a multi-stakeholder workshop in Dar es Salaam

House of Commons International Development Inquiry on Fair Trade
(DFID, International) - Consultant
Description: DFID was required respond to a House of Commons International Development Inquiry on Fair Trade. The inquiry's main question: how effective fair trade is in reducing poverty and how donors can support fair trade in their development assistance.

Activities: Preparation of a report to inform DFID's response.

Minerals Taxation Regimes
(ICMM, International) - Team Leader
Activities: Team leader for a review of issues and challenges in designing and applying mineral taxation regimes. The review investigated the positive and negative links between natural resources, the taxation of their exploitation and the spending of resource revenue. It gave an overview of the different fiscal systems applied to the extractive industries and of the different tax and non-tax instruments. It summarised the arguments for and against taxing the mining sector differently to other economic activities. There was also a review of the theoretical and policy-oriented mining taxation literature, including a discussion of different approaches to collecting and spending mining revenues at the sub-national level
EITI Pre-Validation Progress Report
(EITI Secretariat, International) - Consultant
Description: Review of EITI countries' progress in fulfilling the criteria required for them to meet 'Candidate Country' status.

Activities: Preparation of recommendations to the EITI Board on decisions over country status

Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative
(DFID, Nigeria) - Consultant
Description: Review of DFID's support to the Nigeria Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (NEITI).

Activities: Project review and provision of recommendations on the design and log-frame for a Phase II DFID support to the NEITI.

Review of Kenya Trade and Poverty Programme
(DFID, Kenya) - Team Leader
Description: Team leader for an annual review of the Kenya Trade and Poverty Programme and provision of advice to DFID on the development of a growth and private sector development programme.
Caribbean Sugar National Adaptation Strategies
(DFID, Caribbean) - Consultant
Description: Consultant responsible for a synthesis of Caribbean Sugar National Adaptation Strategies which assessed the costings/budgets contained in the strategies. The purpose was to help identify the amount of transitional assistance needed under the EU financial framework for 2007-13 to enable countries to manage the adjustment process successfully
Assessment of the Costings of the Sugar Action Plans
(DFID, International) - Consultant
Description: Assessment for five ACP countries to help identify the amount of assistance needed under the EU financial framework for 2007-13
OECD Fragile States Principles
(OECD/DFID/World Bank/Belgian Government, Somalia and DRC) - Consultant
Description: Preparation of a progress report on the piloting of the Fragile States Principles in Somalia and DRC. This summarised the process the pilot had followed in each country, identified the main issues emerging, and the Principles that had been selected as the most relevant
Classifying Fragile States
(OECD/DFID, International) - Consultant
Description: Preparation of a background paper on 'Classifying Fragile States' for a DAC workshop. The paper considered the different approaches that have been used to classify fragile states. It attempted to apply the World Bank's 'Business Model' approach to the pilot countries in order to provide lessons on the applicability of the approach and raised questions and issues for discussion in considering how work on classifying fragile states can be taken forward.
Development Policy Coherence
(DFID, International) - Consultant
Description: Rapid assessment of UK policy coherence in partner countries, including involvement in case studies assessing the impact of UK policy on Bangladesh and Nigeria. The project was designed to pilot rapid assessments to develop a better understanding about the coherence of UK policies that impact on the development and poverty reduction of low and middle and income countries. It represented the first occasion that DFID had focused centrally on the need for greater coherence in policies for development and on the identification of practical examples and specific organisational arrangements to help achieve this.
Growth in Africa
(DFID, Africa) - Consultant
Description: Consultant responsible for the preparation of an economic background paper on growth in Africa. The paper presented data on the levels and patterns of growth in DFID's 16 PSA countries, as well as for five key regional economic communities (RECs). It also presented data on some of the factors that are considered as being important in determining a country's growth performance. It analysed recent growth patterns, provided a literature review on Africa's recent growth performance, and presented scenario forecasts for economic growth over the next decade.
Review of European Commission Support to the Agriculture Sector
(DFID/European Commission, Windward Islands) - Team Leader
Description: Team leader of a project to review past EC support to the agriculture sector in the Windward Islands through the SFA and STABEX instruments. The review also considered the opportunities for employment-generating growth in the Windward Islands and the constraints that need to be addressed to enable this, with a particular focus on the agriculture sector in the context of preference erosion for bananas.
Budget Support, Fiscal Policy, Growth and Poverty Reduction
(DFID, Nigeria) - Team Leader
Description: Team leader of an analysis of the political economy of trade policy in Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to deepen understanding of the trade policy process and the incentives for and blockages to change, and therefore help DFID and other stakeholders in the sector to manage their roles in supporting reform more effectively. The key trade policy issues for Nigeria and relevant international experience were examined. The study considered the factors that shape the trade policy environment and the manner in which policies are derived and implemented. It also assessed the role of, and interplay between, the different actors and institutions in the process. This included a review of their capacities, strengths and weaknesses, as well as the incentives and blockages to policy change.
Review of Trade Policy Processes
(DFID, Pakistan) - Consultant
Description: Institutional review of the trade policy making process in Pakistan and related capacity building programmes. The objective of the review was to identify ways of strengthening Pakistan's trade policy by: proposing a process for drawing up a medium to long-term trade policy strategy document; strengthening the trade policy making process; and identifying the role of donor support and how it can most effectively be coordinated.
Sugar Protocol Benefits
(CTA, International) - Consultant
Description: Study to provide ACP countries with recommendations on their negotiations position with the EU in the negotiations over the reform of the Sugar Protocol and options for safeguarding the existing benefits of the Sugar Protocol.
Economic Growth Prospects
(DFID, Nigeria) - Team Leader
Description: Report providing analysis to inform DFID Nigeria's work on pro-poor growth, in the context of the emerging National Economics and Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS) that highlights the imperative for sustainable growth in the non-oil economy for poverty reduction.

Activities: Research and analysis.

Poverty Orientated Budget Support
(DFID, Zambia) - Team Member
Activities: Member of a team commissioned to design a joint donor programme for poverty oriented budget support to the Zambian Government. The main objective of the consultancy was to make recommendations to the Zambian authorities and interested donors on a proposal and memorandum of understanding (MOU) for the management of budget support which would form the basis of a negotiated agreement. The draft MOU suggested the 'rules of the game' and operational modalities according to which a budget support arrangement might operate. The proposal set out recommendations about whether a move towards budget support was appropriate.
Role of Large Middle Income Countries
(DFID, Nigeria) - Consultant
Description: Analysis of changes in the regional and international roles of large middle-income countries and the opportunities and constraints to change they offer to other countries' development. The study focused its analysis on four large middle income countries: Brazil, China, Russia and South Africa. It considered the strong two-way influences between domestic changes and regional and international developments relating primarily to economic, political, security and social factors.
Drivers of Change
(DFID, Nigeria) - Consultant
Description: Study to identify the factors that could drive pro-poor change in Nigeria: i.e. the main incentives, actors, opportunities and forces for pro-poor change. This included a consideration of how these drivers can be influenced, both through the demand for and supply of these mechanisms, for example through government, civil society, the international community, the media and the private sector. The work played a major part in the preparation of DFID's Country Assistance Plan for Nigeria.
Analysis of the Impact of Preference Erosion in Sugar
(DFID, International) - Consultant
Description: Study on the impact of preference erosion in sugar for ACP countries. Included detailed recommendations on how the impact of preference erosion should be addressed by donors.
Design of a Special Products modality in the context of the WTO negotiations
(DFID, International) - Consultant
Description: Analysis of the design of the Special Products modality in the WTO agriculture negotiations, which would provide developing countries with the ability to limit tariff reductions for specified sensitive products. The paper reviewed: whether the Special Product concept is justified, how the products would be identified; the nature of the concessions for the products; and which countries would be entitled to these concessions. The paper was presented in the WTO, Whitehall and at a European Network conference in Paris.
Review of Pakistan Trade and Poverty Project
(DFID, Pakistan) - Team leader
Description: Leader of a team undertaking a Project Completion Review of DFID's Trade and Poverty Project in Pakistan and advising on future trade-related interventions in DFID's programme. The objectives of the review were to: describe the extent to which the purpose and the goal of the project had been achieved; conduct an institutional assessment of Pakistan's capacity to participate in trade negotiations; assess whether there was a continuing need for capacity building support; review with the other key donors their plans to support trade policy capacity; review with the GoP its plans to finance consultancy support from its own resources; and to recommend to DFID whether or not there was a case to continue to support trade policy capacity building.
Support to Preparations for the WTO negotiations
(DFID, Nigeria) - Economist
Activities: Design and management of a programme of technical assistance to help the Nigerian government prepare for the Cancun WTO ministerial meeting. The Federal Ministry of Commerce requested assistance to identify the key priorities for assistance for the next six months. The Ministry and DFID Nigeria had also expressed an interest in producing some high-level policy briefings on trade and development for the incoming administration. The purpose of the design mission was to prioritise the key trade priorities for Nigeria, particularly those relating to the WTO negotiations, based on consultations with key stakeholders, and to consider the proposal for the development of high level policy briefings.
WTO 'Marrakesh Decision'
(DFID, International) - Consultant
Description: Analysis of the impact of agricultural market liberalisation on developing countries' ability to compete on world markets. The analysis provided a summary of the current structure and destination of developing countries' agricultural exports, the distortions present in world agricultural markets and market access barriers faced by developing countries' exports, the likely implications of agricultural trade liberalisation for developing countries and suggestions for what needs to be done if developing countries are to harness the opportunities provided by liberalisation.

Activities: Research and analysis.

Review of the WTO Agriculture Negotiation Proposals
(DFID, International) - Consultant
Activities: Preparation of a report to clarify the issues and concerns in the WTO Agriculture negotiations, bearing in mind the perceptions, and the likely negotiating positions of developing countries. This included an outline of the likely future progress of the negotiations, followed by some basic considerations for a new agreement. A summary of the most important issues for developing countries in the negotiations was provided, as well as an examination of the draft modalities document prepared for the March 2003 meeting of the Special Session of the Committee on Agriculture.
EU Dairy Regime
(DFID, International) - Consultant
Description: Assessment of the implications of the different options for reform to the EU's Dairy Regime that had been put forward by the European Commission, in terms of their likely effects on the EU dairy market and the implications of these effects on developing countries. The report concluded with recommendations for the line that DFID should take in these discussions in order to maximise the potential gains to developing countries.
Evaluation of DFID's Country Programme
(DFID, Brazil) - Consultant
Description: Evaluation of DFID's Country Programme in Brazil 1997-2003. The evaluation aimed to assess the development contribution of the 1998-2000 DFID Brazil Programme (distinguishing the ex ante and ex post country strategies) with a view to informing the priorities, implementation and evaluation of the 2001-03 programme.

Activities: Economic analysis

Evaluation of DFID's Country Programme
(DFID, Romania) - Consultant
Description: Evaluation of DFID's Country Programme in Romania.

Activities: Preparation of a report on politics, society and foreign assistance in Romania since 1997.

2001 - 2003
Africa Trade and Poverty Programme
(DFID, Africa) - Consultant
Description: Support to the design, monitoring and evaluation of the individual ATPP projects in several countries in Africa, including Kenya, Swaziland, Tanzania, Nigeria, Botswana, and Namibia. Assistance was also given to DFID regarding the contracting of the ATPP Implementation Contract and for the general operation of the ATPP.
2001 - 2003
State and Local Government Reform Programme
(DFID, Nigeria) - Team member
Description: Member of the Public Expenditure Management team under DFID's State and Local Government Reform programme in Nigeria, working in three states on reform to improve budgetary prioritisation, stakeholder consultation, transparency and predictability in the budgeting process and evidence-based planning.
DFID Budget Support
(DFID, International) - Consultant
Description: Preparation and presentation of several papers for DFID on aid instruments and on general budget support.

Activities: Included a paper presented at the DFID Infrastructure and Urban Development Advisors' Conference. The purpose of the paper was to guide IUDD advisers in future discussion on aid mechanisms. The paper outlined different types of aid mechanisms in use, considered the role for IUDD advisors in the provision of each form of aid and provided ideas on how to decide between the different types of aid mechanism.

Budget Support Training Materials
(European Commission, International) - Consultant
Description: Design and preparation of training materials for EC staff on budget support and assessing and monitoring policies at the macro and sectoral level. The purpose of the training materials was to help staff better understand the rationale for EC support to Sector Programmes and how to prepare, finance and implement a Sector Programme Support operation. They also provided an overview of the analytical processes required to prepare and manage EC support to Sector Programmes.
Review of DFID's Support to IFAD
(DFID, International) - Consultant
Description: In considering its contribution to the sixth replenishment of IFAD?s resources, DFID was considering 'split funding', meaning that as well as a contribution to IFAD's core budget, funds would be provided for a multi-donor supplementary fund that had been proposed by IFAD for 'Innovative Partnerships for Rural Poverty Alleviation'.

Activities: In this context, the consultant undertook a review of DFID's existing support to IFAD through its core budget and an assessment of DFID's proposed contribution to the multi-donor 'Innovative Partnerships for Rural Poverty Alleviation' Supplementary Fund. Recommendations were provided on the design of the multi-donor fund.

Development Finance Institutions
(DFID, International) - Consultant
Activities: Participation in a study on the policies, activities and performance of international Development Finance Institutions.
'Development Box' Proposals
(DFID, International) - Consultant
Description: Preparation of an influential study to assesses the proposals for the creation of a Development Box in a revised WTO Agreement on Agriculture. As well as the Development Box proposals, it considered most of the Special and Differential Treatment measures proposed in the course of the WTO agriculture negotiations. The study was presented to delegates in the WTO and the European Commission.

Activities: Research and analysis.

Agricultural Safeguard Mechanism
(DFID, International) - Consultant
Description: In the context of the agriculture negotiations in the WTO, the consultant undertook a study which provided detailed consideration of the design of a proposed agricultural safeguard mechanism that would be provided to developing countries to protect small farmers from the damaging effects of temporary fluctuations in the price and quantity of imported staple food and other crops that are sensitive from a food security perspective. The study was presented to delegates in the WTO and the European Commission.
2001 - 2002
Supporting the Drivers of Pro-Poor Change
(DFID, Bangladesh) - Consultant
Description: Study of the socio-economic, political and governance factors effecting Bangladesh's development prospects. The study was intended to contribute to discussions between DFID, other parts of the UK government, the government of Bangladesh and other development partners, including in the private and non-governmental sectors and among international agencies. The central message of the study was that prospects for continued progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Bangladesh depend substantially on the effectiveness and accountability of a range of institutions - formal and informal; public, private and non-governmental; market and non-market; local, sectoral, national and even international; and rural and urban. This was the first Drivers of Change study ever undertaken for DFID.
Trade Liberalisation Impact Study
(European Commission, Malawi) - Consultant
Description: Study on the impact of trade liberalisation under the Cross-Border Initiative on the domestic industries of Malawi.